The Libertarian Angle

Richard Ebeling is the BB&T Distinguished Professor of Ethics and Free Enterprise Leadership at The Citadel. He became a libertarian while still in high school and has been involved in the libertarian movement for many decades. Who did he look up to? What books have influenced him the most?

Richard and FFF president Jacob Hornberger discuss.

Direct download: 2018-10-10_LA_Hayek_Audio.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 10:58am EDT

Richard Ebeling is the BB&T Distinguished Professor of Ethics and Free Enterprise Leadership at The Citadel. He became a libertarian while still in high school and has been involved in the libertarian movement for many decades. Who did he look up to? What books have influenced him the most?

Richard and FFF president Jacob Hornberger discuss.

Direct download: 2018-10-02_LA_Mises.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:41pm EDT

Richard Ebeling is the BB&T Distinguished Professor of Ethics and Free Enterprise Leadership at The Citadel. He became a libertarian while still in high school and has been involved in the libertarian movement for many decades. Who did he look up to? What books have influenced him the most?

Direct download: 2018-09-25_LA_Audio.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:33pm EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling are pleased to have as a guest Cato Institute senior fellow Ted Galen Carpenter to discuss foreign policy.

Direct download: 2018-09-18_LA_Audio_Intervention_Carpenter.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:10pm EDT

What is The Free State Project (https://www.fsp.org/Join/)? Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling welcome FSP founder Jason Sorens.

Direct download: 2018-09-11_LA_FSP_Audio.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:52pm EDT

Immigration controls are like any other type of government control--a top-down command structure doomed to failure and resource mismanagement. And more importantly, immigration controls violate the libertarian non-agression principle. Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss.

Direct download: 2018-08-29_LA_Immigration_Chaos_AUDIO.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:40pm EDT

Social Security is theft. There is no trust fund. You have no rights to the money funding it. It is simply a transfer mechanism to get money from the young to the old. FFF president Jacob G. Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss.

Direct download: 2018-08-22_Abolish_Social_Security_AUDIO.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:37pm EDT

Insider trading is a felony. Should it be? Is insider trading wrong at all? FFF president Jacob G. Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss.

Direct download: 2018-08-14_LA_Insier_Trading_AUDIO.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:32pm EDT

What would a free market in education look like? FFF president Jacob G. Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss.

Direct download: 2018-08-07_LA_College_Socialism_Audio.mp3
Category:libertarianism -- posted at: 12:57pm EDT

What is a fiat currency and how does the state benefit from controlling the money supply? FFF president Jacob G. Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss.

Direct download: 2018-07-31_LA_Fed_Audio.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:47pm EDT

One of the basic functions of a government is the defense of property. How does eminent domain fit within this role? Is there any place in a free society for eminent domain? FFF president Jacob G. Hornberger and Richard M. Ebeling discuss.

Direct download: 2018-07-17_LA_Eminent_Domain.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:02pm EDT

What is democratic socialism and what is its import for a free society? FFF president Jacob G. Hornberger and Richard M. Ebeling discuss.

Direct download: 2018-07-11_Democratic_Socialism.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:56pm EDT

If the free movement of goods is beneficent and desired, does that not also hold true for people? And more importantly, don't people have the right of free movement? FFF president Jacob G. Hornberger and Richard M. Ebeling discuss.

Direct download: 2018-06-26_LA_Immigration_Trade.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:23pm EDT

FFF president Jacob G. Hornberger and Richard M. Ebeling discuss how government licensing violates the non-aggression principle and distorts the market.

Direct download: 2018-06-19_LA_Licensure.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 10:56am EDT

If you own yourself, shouldn't you be free to ingest what you wish? FFF president Jacob G. Hornberger and Richard M. Ebeling discuss the immorality of the drug war.

Direct download: 2018-06-05_LA_Opioids.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:31am EDT

Here is another solution for the NFL’s woes concerning kneeling players during the Star-Spangled Banner — Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling propose eliminating it.

Direct download: 2018-05-30_National_Anthem.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:05pm EDT

Some are celebrating the the 200th birthday of Karl Marx, author of Das Kapital. Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling tell you why it is no reason to celebrate.

Direct download: 2018-05-08_LA_Marx_at_200.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:03pm EDT

After our sold-out conference in Charleston, Jacob and Richard address our current foreign policy that violates libertarian principles and creates more enemies than it defeats.

Direct download: 2018-05-02_LA.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:28pm EDT

What works better–socialism or the free market? Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling apply libertarian principles to Social Security.

Direct download: 2018-04-24_LA_Socialism_and_Social_Security.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:24pm EDT

Join Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling as they explore the benefits of free trade and the folly of tariffs and protectionism.

Direct download: 2018-04-11_Trumps_Trade_War_Folly.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:32pm EDT

Special guest Doug Bandow, senior fellow a The Cato Institute, talks foreign intervention with Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling.

Direct download: 2018-03-13_Reject_Foreign_Interventionsim.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 10:45am EDT

Do tariffs benefit a society, or is free trade the great engine of productivity and liberty? Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss President Trump's proposal for tariffs on steel and aluminum.

Direct download: 2018-03-07_Trump_Tariff_Folly.mp3
Category:libertarianism -- posted at: 10:37am EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talking discuss the growing tensions on the Korean peninsula.

Direct download: 2018-02-13_Olympics.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 9:36am EDT

What is the difference between a democratic system and a capitalist system? FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling hash it out.

Direct download: 2018-02-06_Democracy_and_Capitalism.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 9:57am EDT

How does free trade benefit mankind? How does it affect liberty? FFF president Jacob Hornberger, Richard Ebeling, and special guest and George Mason University economist Donald J. Boudreaux hash it out.

Direct download: 2018-01-30_Free_Trade_Minimum_Wage.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:03pm EDT

What is DACA? What is the libertarian angle on immigration? FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss President Trump's recent policy moves concerning illegal immigrants.

Direct download: 2018-01-16_Immigration_Circus.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:42pm EDT

Is government really providing liberty? Do politicians protect our freedom? FFF president Jacob Hornberger, Richard Ebeling, and special guest FFF policy adviser James Bovard discuss freedom frauds.

Direct download: 2018-01-09_Freedom_Frauds.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 7:01am EDT

What happens when the national government starts handing out presents to everyone? FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss socialism in America.

Direct download: 2017-12-20_LA_Americas_Santa_Claus.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 10:49am EDT

How did you become a libertarian? Does it all being with Ayn Rand? FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss how they became libertarians.

Direct download: 2017-12-12_LA.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:49am EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss recent tax legislation.

Direct download: 2017-12-05_Trumps_Tax_Bill_and_American_Serfdom.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:41am EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about Thanksgiving and the free market.

Direct download: 2017-11-28_Thanksgiving_and_the_Free_Market.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:44pm EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss how monopolies are government-created entities and that freeing the market is the only way to liberty and prosperity.

Direct download: 2017-10-10_Monopolies.mp3
Category:economics -- posted at: 11:48am EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss the benefits of the free market.

Direct download: 2017-10-03_LA_Consumer_Sovereignty.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:07am EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling join the conversation on Vietnam following the release of the Ken Burns documentary.

Direct download: 2017-09-19_The_Vietnam_War.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:11pm EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling the presidency and immigration policy.

Direct download: 2017-09-12_Trump_Obama_and_DACA.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 10:57am EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about the economics of disaster recovery.

Direct download: 2017-09-06_In_Praise_of_Price_Gouging.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:51am EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss the recent controversy over civil war statues and the violence in Charlottesville, Virginia.

Direct download: 2017-08-23_Racism_and_Statues.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:28pm EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discussing rising tensions with North Korea.

Direct download: 2017-08-15_North_Korea_Crisis.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:49pm EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling answer questions from viewers on open borders.

Direct download: 2017-08-09_Q_an_A_Open_Borders.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:45pm EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss paternalism and how it fosters a fear of individual liberty.

Direct download: 2017-08-02_LA_The_Fear_of_Freedom.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 10:45am EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about a basic tenet of libertarianism.

Direct download: 2017-07-25_LA_Libertarianism_and_Healthcare.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:38am EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss the nature of socialism.

Category:general -- posted at: 11:36am EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Jefferson Morley talk FFF’s recent conference, “The National Security State & JFK.”

Direct download: 2017-06-23_LA_CIA__JFK.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:23am EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about the founder of The Foundation for Economic Education and a hero of modern libertarianism, Milton Friedman.

Direct download: 2017-06-147_LA_Leonard_Read.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:53pm EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about one hero of modern libertarianism, Milton Friedman.

Direct download: 2017-06-06_Milton_Friedman.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:44am EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about the the public displays associated with Memorial Day.

Direct download: 2017-06-01_Memorial_Day.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:39am EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about the great economists and libertarians Frederic Bastiat and Henry Hazlitt.

Direct download: 2017-05-23_Bastiat_and_Hazlitt.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:33am EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about the great economist and libertarian Ludwig von Mises.

Direct download: 2017-05-16_Giants_of_Libertarianism_-_Ludwig_von_Mises.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:12pm EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss how they became exposed the the libertarian movement.

Direct download: 2017-05-08_How_We_Became_Libertarians.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:10pm EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss the morality of taxation.

Direct download: 2017-05-03_LA_Income_Tax.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:52am EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss the possibility of federal government shutdown.

Direct download: 2017-04-25_LA_Shut_Down_the_Government.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:04pm EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss different methods for advancing towards a free society.

Direct download: 2017-04-12_LA_Advancing_Liberty.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 10:32am EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss the benefits of free trade.

Direct download: 2017-04-06_LA_Free_Trade.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:36pm EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss how spontaneous order organizes society in an efficient way while at the same time preserving liberty.

Direct download: 2017-03-28_FA_Hayek_and_Spontaneous_Order.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:01pm EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss President Trump's budget proposal.

Direct download: 2017-03-21_Trumps_Budget_Proposal.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:31am EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss U.S. fiscal policy.

Direct download: 2017-03-15_LA_The_Debt_Ceiling.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:17am EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss gun rights.

Direct download: 2017-03-07_LA_Gun_Rights.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:44pm EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling, along with special guest Donald J. Boudreaux, discuss the economics of the minimum wage and free trade.

Direct download: 2017-02-21_LA_Minimum_Wage_and_Free_Trade.mp3
Category:libertarianism -- posted at: 1:03pm EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about what it means to be free, what it means to live in a free society.

Direct download: 2017-02-16_The_Meaning_of_Freedom.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:32am EDT

Welfare versus Charity

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about the differences between voluntary charity and coerced "charity."

Direct download: 2017-02-07_Welfare_versus_Charity.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:29am EDT

Trump's Immigration Dictatorship

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about Donald Trump's policy on immigration.

Direct download: 2017-01-31_Trumps_Immigration_Dictatorship.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:46am EDT

Trump's Wall

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about Donald Trump's statements on immigration.

Direct download: 2017-01-18_LA_Trumps_Wall.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:00pm EDT

Obama vs Trump

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about the executive powers that Obama is bequeathing to Trump.

Go to the podcast http://libertarianangle.libsyn.com/.

Direct download: 2017-01-11_LA__Obama_vs_Trump.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:55am EDT

Noninterventionism

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss the history and ramifications of a noninterventionist foreign policy.

Direct download: 2017-01-04_LA_Noninterventionism.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:27pm EDT

Trump's Cabinet Picks, Part 2

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about the choices that president-elect Donald Trump has been making for his cabinet.

Direct download: 2016-12-14_LA_Trump_Cabinet_Part_2.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 10:45am EDT

Trump's Cabinet Picks

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about the choices that president-elect Donald Trump has been making for his cabinet.

Direct download: 2016-12-07_Trumps_Cabinet.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:14am EDT

The Death of Fidel Castro

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss the impact of Fidel Castro’s death on the future of Cuba and Cuban-American relations.

Direct download: 2016-11-30_Death_of_Fidel_Castro.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 10:26am EDT

Democracy versus Freedom

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about freedom and its relationship to democracy.

Category:general -- posted at: 1:20pm EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about the trade policy of president-elect Donald Trump.

Direct download: 2016-11-17_Trump_on_Trade.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:16pm EDT

The Trump Revolution

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about the surprising results of the recent U.S. presidential election.

Direct download: 2016-11-10_LA_The_Trump_Revolution.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:10pm EDT

The Principlef Socialim

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss the moral and practical failings of socialism.

Direct download: 2016-11-03_LA_Principles_of_Socialism.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:21pm EDT

The Philippines Divorces the U.S.

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss the recent actions of Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte in denouncing the role of the U.S. in Philippines' history and severing ties with the U.S. military.

Direct download: 2016-10-26_LA_Philippines_Audio.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:54pm EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss how a firm understanding of Austrian Economics helps one to understand the folly of current public policy.

Direct download: 2016-10-19_LA_The_Importance_of_Austrian_Economics.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 9:30am EDT

The Second Presidential Debate

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about the second presidential debate between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton.

Direct download: 2016-10-12_LA_The_Second_Presidential_Debate.mp3
Category:libertarianism -- posted at: 1:07pm EDT

Millennial Support for Gary Johnson

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss how younger voters are supporting Libertarian presidential nominee Gary Johnson.

Direct download: 2016-10-05_LA_Millennials_Gary_Johnson.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:26pm EDT

Presidential Debate Follies

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss the recent presidential debates.

Direct download: 2016-09-28_Presidential_Debate_Follies.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:52pm EDT

The Libertarian Angle: The 9-11 Attacks

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss the anniversary of the terrorist attacks of 2001.

Direct download: 2016-09-14_Libertarian_Angle_Podcast.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:54pm EDT

Obamacare in Crisis

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss the disaster that is Obamacare.

Direct download: 2016-08-31_the_libertarian_angle_obamacare_in_crisis_youtube.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:52am EDT

The Libertarian Angle: Trump's Income Tax Returns

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss the relevance of Donald Trump's tax returns.

Direct download: 2016-08-24_the_libertarian_angle_trump_39_s_income_tax_returns_youtube.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:44pm EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss the impact that a Trump or Clinton presidency would have on the economy.


FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling recap their recent visit to FreedomFest in Las Vegas.

Direct download: 2016-07-30_the_libertarian_angle_fff_39_s_freedomfest_panels_youtube.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:30pm EDT

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss the recent shootings in Dallas, Texas.

Direct download: 2016-07-13_the_libertarian_angle_the_shootings_in_dallas_youtube.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:20pm EDT

Independence Day

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about Independence Day!

Direct download: 2016-07-06_the_libertarian_angle_independence_day_youtube.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:48pm EDT

The Brexit Vote

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about Britain’s vote to exit from the European Union.

Category:general -- posted at: 12:52pm EDT

The Fed and the 2008 Housing Crash

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling talk about the disastrous policies of the Federal Reserve.


The Johnson-Weld Ticket

FFF president Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling dissect the presidential ticket for the Libertarian Party and its impact on the future of the libertarian movement.

Direct download: 2016-06-14_the_libertarian_angle_the_johnson_weld_ticket_youtube.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:08pm EDT

The Interventionism of the Two World Wars, Part 5

In this segment, Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling continue their discussion about the horrible results stemming from the foreign policy interventions of World War I and World War II.


The Interventionism of Two World Wars, Part 4

In this segment, Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling continue their discussion about the horrible results stemming from the foreign policy interventions of World War I and World War II.


The Interventionism of the Two World Wars, Part 1

In this segment, Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling discuss the horrible results stemming from the foreign policy interventions of World War I and World War II.


The Interventionism of Two World Wars, Part 3

In this segment, Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling continue their discussion about the horrible results stemming from the foreign policy interventions of World War I and World War II.


The Interventionism of Two World Wars, Part 2

In this segment, Jacob Hornberger and Richard Ebeling continue their discussion about the horrible results stemming from the foreign policy interventions of World War I and World War II.


The Socialism of Public Housing

In this segment, Richard Ebeling and Jacob Hornberger discuss the immorality of public housing.

Direct download: 2016-04-26_libertarian_angle_the_socialism_of_public_housing_youtube.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 1:46pm EDT

Abolish the Income Tax

In this segment, Richard Ebeling and Jacob Hornberger explore the evil that is the income tax.

Direct download: libertarian_angle_abolish_the_income_tax_youtub2016-04-21_e.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 12:41pm EDT

Abolish the Fed

In this segment, Richard Ebeling and Jacob Hornberger discuss the why free trade is pragmatically a boon to civilization and ethically the only moral result when you allow people to live in freedom.

Direct download: 2016-04-05_the_libertarian_angle_abolish_the_fed_youtube.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 10:59am EDT

The Virtues of Free Trade

In this segment, Richard Ebeling and Jacob Hornberger discuss the why free trade is pragmatically a boon to civilization and ethically the only moral result when you allow people to live in freedom.

Direct download: 2016-03-29_the_libertarian_angle_the_virtues_of_free_trade_youtube.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 2:20pm EDT

Why People Are Supporting Trump

In this segment, Richard Ebeling and Jacob Hornberger discuss the Republican primaries and why candidate Donald Trump is appealing to so many voters.

Direct download: 2016-03-22_libertarian_angle_why_people_are_supporting_trump_youtube.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:42am EDT

Economic Fascism

In this segment, Richard Ebeling and Jacob Hornberger discuss the principles of fascism, the administration of FDR, and corporatism.

Go to the podcast http://libertarianangle.libsyn.com/.

Direct download: 2016-03-15_the_libertarian_angle_economic_fascism_youtube.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 11:27am EDT

History of Economic Thought, Part 8

In this segment, Richard Ebeling and Jacob Hornberger discuss the rise of the Austrian school of economic thought and its contributions.


History of Economic Thought, Part 7

In this segment, Richard Ebeling and Jacob Hornberger discuss the rise of the Austrian school of economic thought and its contributions.


: History of Economic Thought, Part 4

In this segment, Richard Ebeling and Jacob Hornberger discuss the rise of the Austrian school of economic thought and its contributions.